Human Population Growth (Consumption) Has Increased Species Extinctions by More Than 1,000 Times Natural Rate

A new study published in the internationally recognized journal Science has determined that the current rate of species extinctions is more than 1,000 times greater than the background rate calculated from the fossil record and genetic data, spanning millions of years. The primary cause of this dramatic rise in the loss of species is human population growth and increased consumption, according to the study.

“This important study confirms that species are going extinct at a pace not seen in tens of millions of years, and unlike past extinction events, the cause is us,” said Noah Greenwald, endangered species director with the Center for Biological Diversity. “The loss of species has drastic consequences for us all by degrading ecosystems that clean our air and water and are a source of food and medicine, and by making our world less interesting and a more lonely place. This study underscores the importance of laws like the Endangered Species Act and the need for swift action to reverse the disturbing trend of extinction.”

In likely the most comprehensive assessment of species extinction rates yet, the study led by acclaimed conservation biologist Dr. Stuart Pimm of Duke University found the rate at which mammals, birds and amphibians are moving toward extinction over the past four decades would have been 20 percent higher were it not for conservation efforts.

The study uses newly available data on species distributions and imperilment to quantify the current extinction rate, which was estimated to be at least 100 extinctions per million species-years. The researchers then analyzed extensive data on rates of speciation and extinction over millions of years to estimate a background or natural rate of extinction of .1 extinctions per million species-years, leading to the new estimate that we have increased the rate of extinction by at least 1,000 times.

This estimate is considered conservative because of the large number of species still unknown to science, the fact that a majority of such species are likely to be rare and at risk, and uncertainties in predicting future extinctions given increased habitat destruction, spread of invasive species and diseases, and global warming.

“The findings of this study are alarming to say the least,” said Greenwald. “But it also shows we can make a difference if we choose to and should be a clarion call to take action to protect more habitat for species besides our own and to check our own population growth and consumption.”

The study further notes that some groups of species are going extinct at even greater rates. North American freshwater fishes, for example, were found to be going extinct at a rate of 305 extinctions per million species-years, or more than 3,000 times greater than the background rate, and the continent’s snails and slugs are going extinct at a rate nearly 10,000 times background. These high rates reflect the degree to which we have degraded rivers and lakes in North America with dams, pollution, spread of non-native species and direct destruction.

“There can be no question that we’re fouling our own nest, but what this study shows is that this has consequences not just for us, but for the millions of other species with which we share this world,” said Greenwald.”

ARTICLE LINK: http://www.biologicaldiversity.org/news/press_releases/2014/extinction-rate-05-29-2014.html
STUDY  LINK: http://www.sciencemag.org/content/344/6187/1246752.abstract?sid=a4435a49-708d-44b5-9101-e5c5abf91eb0
NAT-GEO LINK: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2014/05/140529-conservation-science-animals-species-endangered-extinction/

Easter Islands Ancient Gardening Practices

A few short segments from a documentary about Easter Islands (Rapa Nui) and how it become to be deforested and baron. The ancient Rapanui people did abuse their environment but they were also developing sustainable practices—innovating, experimenting, trying to adapt to a risky environment. They are generally held responsible for cutting down 6,000,000 trees in 300 years (though that is disputed), for example they were also developing new technological and agricultural practices along the way—such as fertilization techniques to restore the health of the soil and rock gardens to protect the plants. “Societies don’t just go into a tailspin and self-destruct,” says Stevenson, an archaeologist at the Virginia Department of Historic Resources. “They can and do adapt, and they emerge in new ways. The key is to put more back into the system than is taken out.”

This section of the documentary caught my attention due to this being the first time hearing about “lithic mulching” which is basically putting down rocks to help prevent soil erosion by creating micro climates with rocks, this helped create shade and deterred weeds too. Also not mentioned here is how these volcanic rocks would have eroded down remineralising the soil as they went. Other gardening practices show them growing fruit in caves entrances for shade from elements and building “manavai” stoned circle walls to protect plants from salt winds etc”

This next clip shown above speaks about how the practices of the inhabitants of the island were sustainable. They go on to show a possible indication of water conservation showing gulleys, dams, pavements and what effectively looks to me as water retention, encouraging the water to soak in to stop runoff in heavy rains. Well that or maybe they are “water gardens” or some kind of ancient method of “plumbing” water. They also show how as well as cuttings down tree’s they planted them too.

Several interesting gardening practices some of which today we maybe could call experimentations in “permaculture”.

Original Name: Easter Island Mysteries of a Lost World
Detail: S01E01
Copyright: BBC4